PMD is a framework to perform code analysis. You can create your own rules to check for patterns specific to your codebase, or the coding practices of your team.
How rules work: the AST
Before running rules, PMD parses the source file into a data structure called an abstract syntax tree (AST). This tree represents the syntactic structure of the code, and encodes syntactic relations between source code elements. For instance, in Java, method declarations belong to a class: in the AST, the nodes representing method declarations will be descendants of a node representing the declaration of their enclosing class. This representation is thus much richer than the original source code (which, for a program, is just a chain of characters), or the token chain produced by a lexer (which is e.g. what Checkstyle works on). For example:
|Sample code (Java)
Conceptually, PMD rules work by matching a “pattern” against the AST of a file. Rules explore the AST and find nodes that satisfy some conditions that are characteristic of the specific thing the rule is trying to flag. Rules then report a violation on these nodes.
Discovering the AST
ASTs are represented by Java classes deriving from
Each PMD language has its own set of such classes, and its own rules about how
these classes relate to one another, based on the grammar of the language. For
example, all Java AST nodes extend
The structure of the AST can be discovered through
Writing new rules
PMD supports two ways to define rules: using an XPath query, or using a Java visitor. XPath rules are much easier to set up, since they’re defined directly in your ruleset XML, and are expressive enough for nearly any task.
On the other hand, some parts of PMD’s API are only accessible from Java, e.g. accessing the usages of a declaration. And Java rules allow you to do some complicated processing, to which an XPath rule couldn’t scale.
In the end, choosing one strategy or the other depends on the difficulty of what your rule does. I’d advise to keep to XPath unless you have no other choice.
XML rule definition
New rules must be declared in a ruleset before they’re referenced. This is the
case for both XPath and Java rules. To do this, the
rule element is used, but
instead of mentioning the
ref attribute, it mentions the
with the implementation class of your rule.
- For Java rules: this is the class extending AbstractRule (transitively)
- For XPath rules: this is
language attribute will be required on all
elements that declare a new rule. Some base rule classes set the language implicitly in their
constructor, and so this is not required in all cases for the rule to work. But this
behavior will be discontinued in PMD 7, so missing
language attributes are
reported beginning with PMD 6.27.0 as a forward compatibility warning.
To learn how to write a rule:
- Your First Rule introduces the basic development process of a rule with a running example
- Writing XPath Rules explains a bit more about XPath rules and our XPath API
- Writing Java Rules describes how to write a rule in Java
To go further: